mardi 23 juin 2009

Programme de Sciences 7ième

Kenneth vient de commencer la fameuse série de J.Wile qui est connue comme un des meilleurs programme de sciences pour les enfants faisant l'éducation à domicile aux États-Unies. Il est anglais, mais tellement intéressant qu'on oublie la langue :-)
Nous avons aussi acheté les 2 CD's audio qui accompagnent le manuel. Kenneth peut écouter la personne lire le texte en même temps qu'il suit dans son manuel. À la fin de tout les modules, il doit passer un test complet de ce qu'il a appris.



La table des matières:

Exploring Creation With General Science
Table of Contents
MODULE #1: A Brief History of Science ............................................................................................ 1
Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 1
The First Inklings of Science (From Ancient Times to 600 B.C.) ........................................................ 1
True Science Begins to Emerge (600 B.C. to 500 A.D.) ...................................................................... 3
Experiment 1.1: Density in Nature........................................................................................................ 4
Experiment 1.2: Atomic Motion ........................................................................................................... 6
Three Other Notable Greek Scientists................................................................................................... 8
The Progress Of Science Stalls For A While (500 A.D. To 1000 A.D.)............................................. 12
Experiment 1.3: A Chemical Reaction................................................................................................ 12
Science Begins To Pick Up Steam (1000 A.D. To 1500 A.D.) .......................................................... 16
The Renaissance: The “Golden Age” Of Science (1500 A.D. To 1660 A.D.) ................................... 18
“Experiment” 1.4: Mapping the Paths of the Planets.......................................................................... 20
The Era of Newton (1660 A.D. to 1735 A.D.).................................................................................... 23
The “Enlightenment” and the Industrial Revolution (1735 A.D. to 1820 A.D.) ................................ 24
The Rest of the Nineteenth Century (1820 A.D. to 1900 A.D.).......................................................... 26
Modern Science (1900 A.D. to the Present)........................................................................................ 29
Summing It Up ................................................................................................................................... 31
MODULE #2: Scientific Inquiry ......................................................................................................... 35
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 35
What Science is NOT .......................................................................................................................... 35
Experiment 2.1: How Does Weight Affect the Speed at Which Objects Fall?................................... 35
Experiment 2.2: Learning More About Weight and the Speed at Which Objects Fall....................... 36
The Scientific Method......................................................................................................................... 40
Experiment 2.3: The Broken Flashlight .............................................................................................. 42
Failures of the Scientific Method ........................................................................................................ 44
The Limitations of Science ................................................................................................................. 48
Science and Christianity..................................................................................................................... 49
MODULE #3: How to Analyze and Interpret Experiments............................................................. 59
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 59
Experiments and Variables.................................................................................................................. 59
Experiment 3.1: A Floating Egg?........................................................................................................ 60
Using A Series Of Experiments .......................................................................................................... 64
Experiment 3.2: Which "Boat" Will Move? ....................................................................................... 64
Experiment 3.3: What Does Soap Do To Water? - Part 1................................................................... 66
Experiment 3.4: What Does Soap Do To Water? - Part 2................................................................... 67
Recognizing Experimental Variables When They Are Not Obvious ................................................. 70
Interpreting the Results of Experiments.............................................................................................. 74
vi ii
MODULE #4: Science, Applied Science, and Technology................................................................ 83
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 83
The Distinction Between Science, Applied Science, and Technology ............................................... 83
Simple Machines ................................................................................................................................ 87
The Lever ........................................................................................................................................... 87
Experiment 4.1: The Lever.................................................................................................................. 87
The Wheel And Axle........................................................................................................................... 93
The Pulley .......................................................................................................................................... 95
Experiment 4.2: A Simulaton of Using Multiple Pulleys ................................................................... 96
The Inclined Plane.............................................................................................................................. 99
The Wedge ....................................................................................................................................... 100
The Screw......................................................................................................................................... 101
MODULE #5: The History of Life – Archaeology, Geology, and Paleontology ........................... 109
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 109
How Do We Learn About the History of Life?................................................................................. 109
Archaeology and History .................................................................................................................. 110
The Internal Test ............................................................................................................................... 114
The External Test .............................................................................................................................. 118
The Bibliographic Test...................................................................................................................... 122
Archaeology in the Absence of Historical Documents ..................................................................... 124
Relative Dating and the Principle of Superposition .......................................................................... 128
What Do We Know About Human History?..................................................................................... 130
MODULE #6: Foundations of Geology ............................................................................................ 135
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 135
Soil, Rocks, and Minerals ................................................................................................................. 137
Experiment 6.1: "Growing" Crystals................................................................................................. 138
Strata In Sedimentary Rock............................................................................................................... 140
Experiment 6.2: Separation of Sedimentation................................................................................... 142
Weathering Of Rocks ........................................................................................................................ 144
Experiment 6.3: Phyiscal Weathering: The Power of Plants ............................................................ 144
Experiment 6.4: Chemical Weathering ............................................................................................. 145
Erosion ............................................................................................................................................. 147
Experiment 6.5: Erosion.................................................................................................................... 148
Bringing It All Together: The Basic Structure of the Grand Canyon ............................................... 152
ix
MODULE #7: The Fossil Record ...................................................................................................... 159
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 159
The Making of Fossils Part 1: Casts and Molds................................................................................ 159
Experiment 7.1: Making a Fossil Cast .............................................................................................. 160
The Making Of Fossils Part 2: Petrifaction....................................................................................... 162
Experiment 7.2: Minerals in Water and Evaporation........................................................................ 162
The Making Of Fossils Part 3: Carbonized Remains........................................................................ 164
Experiment 7.3: A Model of the Carbonization Process................................................................... 165
The Making of Fossils Part 4: Avoiding Decomposition.................................................................. 166
Three General Features of the Fossil Record .................................................................................... 168
A Fourth General Feature of the Fossil Record ................................................................................ 172
Geology and Paleontology from the Uniformitarian Perspective ..................................................... 174
Geology and Paleontology From the Catastrophist Perspective ....................................................... 177
Uniformitarianism or Catastrophism: Which View Is Correct?........................................................ 180
MODULE #8: Uniformitarianism and Catastrophism................................................................... 185
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 185
Uniformitarianism and the Geological Record ................................................................................. 185
“Experiment” 8.1: A Simulation of Using Index Fossils to Order Rock Layers .............................. 186
Uniformitarianism and Evolution...................................................................................................... 191
Catastrophism and the Geological Record ........................................................................................ 194
Catastrophism and the Fossil Record ................................................................................................ 199
Uniformitarianism or Catastrophism: Which Is Better? ................................................................... 203
Evolution: Can It Provide Evidence for Uniformitarianism?............................................................ 208
MODULE #9: What Is Life? ............................................................................................................. 215
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 215
DNA and Life................................................................................................................................... 215
The Structure of DNA ....................................................................................................................... 218
Experiment 9.1: Building a Model of DNA...................................................................................... 220
Energy And Life............................................................................................................................... 223
Experiment 9.2: Finding Food in Plants............................................................................................ 223
Experiment 9.3: A Simple "Self-Sustaining" System ....................................................................... 225
Sensing And Responding To Change................................................................................................ 227
Experiment 9.4: Sensing and Responding to Change ....................................................................... 228
Reproduction And Life...................................................................................................................... 229
Experiment 9.5: Fruit Fly Reproduction ........................................................................................... 230
The Cell: Life’s Smallest Unit .......................................................................................................... 234
x
MODULE #10: Classifying Life ........................................................................................................ 241
Experiment 10.1 - Part 1: Factors that Affect Bacterial Growth....................................................... 241
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 241
The Five-Kingdom System ............................................................................................................... 243
Kingdom Monera .............................................................................................................................. 245
Experiment 10.1 - Part 2: Factors that Affect Bacterial Growth....................................................... 247
Kingdom Protista.............................................................................................................................. 250
Kingdom Fungi................................................................................................................................. 252
Experiment 10.2: Yeast is a Decomposer ......................................................................................... 255
Kingdom Plantae ............................................................................................................................... 256
Experiment 10.3: Vegetative Reproduction ...................................................................................... 256
Experiment 10.4: Turgor Pressure .................................................................................................... 258
Kingdom Animalia ............................................................................................................................ 260
MODULE #11: The Human Body: Fearfully and Wonderfully Made ......................................... 265
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 265
The Superstructure of the Human Body............................................................................................ 265
Bones................................................................................................................................................ 267
Experiment 11.1: Minerals in Bone .................................................................................................. 267
Skeletons In Other Organisms........................................................................................................... 271
Skeletal Muscles............................................................................................................................... 273
Smooth Muscle And The Cardiac Muscle ........................................................................................ 279
Muscles And Movement In Other Organisms................................................................................... 281
Experiment 11.2: Phototropism and Gravitropism ........................................................................... 281
Skin................................................................................................................................................... 282
Experiment 11.3: Skin Color............................................................................................................. 286
Skin in Other Organisms ................................................................................................................... 287
Summary .......................................................................................................................................... 288
MODULE #12: Energy and Life ....................................................................................................... 293
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 293
Life’s Energy Cycle .......................................................................................................................... 293
How Do Organisms Get Energy From Food? ................................................................................... 296
Experiment 12.1: What Combustion Needs ...................................................................................... 297
Experiment 12.2: The Products of Combustion ................................................................................ 299
What Actually Gets Burned For Energy? ......................................................................................... 302
Energy Use In The Body................................................................................................................... 306
Experiment 12.3: Body Temperature ................................................................................................ 307
Calories and Food............................................................................................................................. 308
Metabolic Rates Throughout Creation .............................................................................................. 310
How Combustion Works in Living Organisms................................................................................. 312
x i
MODULE #13: The Human Digestive System................................................................................. 319
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 319
The Process of Digestion................................................................................................................... 319
Experiment 13.1: Seeing a Part of the Digestive Process ................................................................. 319
The Human Digestive System........................................................................................................... 320
The Mouth, Pharynx, And Esophagus .............................................................................................. 323
The Stomach And The Small Intestine.............................................................................................. 326
Experiment 13.2: Stomach Acid and Antacids ................................................................................. 327
No, It’s Not Useless! ......................................................................................................................... 332
The Liver, Pancreas, And Gall Bladder ............................................................................................ 333
Experiment 13.3: The Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate on Stomach Acid .......................................... 335
The Micronutrients........................................................................................................................... 337
MODULE #14: The Human Respiratory and Circulatory Systems.............................................. 343
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 343
The Human Circulatory System........................................................................................................ 343
The Heart and Blood Flow ................................................................................................................ 347
Experiment 14.1: Measuring Your Own Cardiac Cycle ................................................................... 350
The Components Of Blood................................................................................................................ 352
Lungs And Blood Oxygenation......................................................................................................... 355
Experiment 14.2: The Vital Capacity of Your Lungs ....................................................................... 357
The Respiratory System .................................................................................................................... 358
Experiment 14.3: A Model of Your Lungs ....................................................................................... 359
Experiment 14.4: A Model of Your Vocal Cords ............................................................................. 361
Circulation And Respiration Throughout Creation........................................................................... 361
Experiment 14.5: Xylem ................................................................................................................... 362
MODULE #15: The Human Lymphatic, Endocrine, and Urinary Systems................................. 367
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 367
The Lymphatic System...................................................................................................................... 367
Lymph Nodes ................................................................................................................................... 371
Tears ................................................................................................................................................. 375
Experiment 15.1: Working Your Lacrimal Glands Too Hard........................................................... 376
The Urinary System.......................................................................................................................... 377
Experiment 15.2: A Model of Kidney Function ............................................................................... 379
The Endocrine System....................................................................................................................... 382
xi i
MODULE #16: The Human Nervous System.................................................................................. 387
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 387
Neurons: The Basic Unit of the Nervous System ............................................................................. 389
The Basic Layout of the Human Nervous System ............................................................................ 393
Our “Split” Brains ............................................................................................................................. 398
Experiment 16.1: Determining a Person's Dominant Side................................................................ 398
The Brain And Blood ........................................................................................................................ 400
The Peripheral Nervous System (Pns) .............................................................................................. 402
Experiment 16.2: The Pupil of the Eye ............................................................................................. 403
The Human Sense Of Taste............................................................................................................... 405
The Human Sense Of Smell .............................................................................................................. 407
Experiment 16.3: The Sense of Smell and the Sense of Taste .......................................................... 408
The Human Sense Of Vision............................................................................................................. 409
Experiment 16.4: The Human Blind Spot ......................................................................................... 411
The Human Sense Of Touch ............................................................................................................. 414
Experiment 16.5: Variation in Touch Sensitivity.............................................................................. 415
The Human Sense of Hearing ........................................................................................................... 416
Do We Really Use Only 10 Percent of our Brain? ........................................................................... 417
Summing It All Up ............................................................................................................................ 418
Glossary .............................................................................................................................................. 423
Appendix A......................................................................................................................................... 433
Appendix B......................................................................................................................................... 443
Appendix C......................................................................................................................................... 475
Index.................................................................................................................................................... 483

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